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Research: Media & the Developing Child

Want to go to the source?  Here are a number of recent research studies, reports, and publications that shine a light on what media use means for our young pupils.

 

♥ Infants ♥ 

Do Babies Learn from Baby Media? 2010

Infant Media Exposure and Toddler Development. 2010

The Media Family: Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers, Preschoolers, and Their Parents. 2006

 

♥ Preschoolers ♥ 

A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education. 2010

Facing the Screen Dilemma: Young Children, Technology and Early Education. 2012 Early education teacher guide!

Guided Interaction in Pre-school Settings. 2007

Media and Young Children’s Learning. 2008

On Our Minds: Meaningful Technology Integration in Early Learning Environments. 2008

Setting Up a Multi-Touch Preschool 2011

Technology in the Lives of Teachers and Classrooms: Survey of Classroom Teachers and Family Child Care Providers. 2010

The Effects of Interactive Media on Preschoolers’ Learning: A Review of the Research and Recommendations for the Future. 2007

What Should a Preschooler Know about Technology? 2009

 

♥ School-Agers ♥ 

Digital and Media Literacy: A Plan of Action. 2010

Do Television and Electronic Games Predict Children's Psychosocial Adjustment? Longitudinal Research Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. 2013

MediaLit Kit. 2010

What Does ‘Technology Integration’ Mean? 2011

 

♥ Multi-Age Studies & Resources ♥ 

A Framework for Quality in Digital Media for Young Children:  Considerations for Parents, Educators, and Media Creators. 2012

A Statement on the Development of a Framework for Quality Digital Media for Young Children. 2011

Always Connected: The New Digital Media Habits of Young Children. 2011

Children, Media, and Race: Media Use among White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American Children. 2011

Families Matter: Designing Media for a Digital Age. 2011

Learning: Is There an App for That? Investigations of Young Children’s Usage and Learning with Mobile Devices and Apps. 2010

Parents, Children, and Media: A Kaiser Family Foundation Survey. 2007

Take a Giant Step: A Blueprint for Teaching Young Children in a Digital Age. 2011

Zero to Eight: Children’s Media Use in America 2013 Data!

 

♥ Other Target Populations ♥ 

Measuring Children’s Media Use in the Digital Age: Issues and Challenges. 2009

There’s an App for (Almost) Everything: New Technology Tools for EC Professionals—Part 2. 2010

Tools of Engagement: Status Report on Technology in Early Childhood Education. 2011

Use of Computer Technology to Help Students with Special Needs. 2000

What’s in Your Toolbox? New Technology Tools for EC Professionals—Part 1. 2010

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Contact Information

Early Learning Transition Model Team

Ms. Kathleen Lincoln

Child Development Centers

Program Director, Retired

 

Ms. Toby S. Librande

Early Learning Transition Model

Grant Coordinator

408.635.2686 x5571

 

Ms. Linda Lambert

Milpitas Family Literacy Project

Program Coordinator, 2008-2016

 

Rose CDC

250A Roswell Drive

Milpitas, CA 95035

 

Sunnyhills CDC

356 Dixon Road

Milpitas, CA 95035

Please Note: The information on this website is presented as a public service. MUSD does not guarantee the accuracy of information provided by referenced sites or organizations and does not endorse their products or services.

Media in the Classroom

Technology & Learning

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National Performance Standard Guideline: Limiting Screen Time

How does your program measure up?!

 In early care and education settings, media (television [TV], video, and DVD) viewing and computer use should not be permitted for children younger than two years.

 For children two years and older in early care and early education settings, total screen time should be limited to not more than thirty minutes once a week, and for educational or physical activity use only.

 During meal or snack time, TV, video, or DVD viewing should not be allowed.

 Computer use should be limited to no more than fifteen-minute increments except for school-age children completing homework assignments and children with special health care needs who require and consistently use assistive and adaptive computer technology.

 Parents/guardians should be informed if screen media are used in the early care and education program.

 Any screen media used should be free of advertising and brand placement.

 TV programs, DVD, and computer games should be reviewed and evaluated before participation of the children to ensure that advertising and brand placement are not present.

Excerpted from Caring for our Children: Standard 2.2.0.3: Limiting Screen Time – Media, Computer Time.

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Classroom Considerations: How Much? When? What Kind?

The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Public Health Association, and the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education recommend the following guidelines for screen time in early care and early education settings: 

★ In early care and education settings, media (television [TV], video, and DVD) viewing and computer use should not be permitted for children younger than two years.

★ For children two years and older in early care and early education settings, total media time should be limited to not more than 30 minutes once a week, and for educational or physical activity use only.

★ During meal or snack time, TV, video, or DVD viewing should not be allowed.

★ Computer use should be limited to no more than 15-minute increments except for homework and for children who require and consistently use assistive and adaptive computer technology.

★ Parents/guardians should be informed if screen media are used in the early care and education program.

★ Any screen media used should be free of advertising and brand placement. TV programs, DVD, and computer games should be reviewed and evaluated before participation of the children to ensure that advertising and brand placement are not present.

Excerpted from the excellent guide Facing the Screen Dilemma: Young Children, Technology and Early Education (p. 10).  Published by the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, Alliance for Childhood, & Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children’s Entertainment (2012).

Designing a Classroom Media Use Plan: Step by Step

Simply follow these simple recommendations for using screen technologies in early childhood settings…

  1. Early childhood professionals need to be well-informed about the implications of screen technologies for young children.
  2. Make intentional decisions about technology.
  3. Keep in mind that choosing to be screen-free is a viable option.
  4. Work closely with parents.
  5. Remember to keep settings for infants and toddlers screen-free and to set developmentally appropriate time limits for older children. (p. 19)

If you decide to use media in your classroom, follow these easy steps to seamless, beneficial integration:

  1. Be intentional: Have a carefully thought-out rationale for the technology you choose.
  2. Establish technology rules and routines.
  3. Actively facilitate children’s involvement and learning before, during, and after any screen activity.
  4. Choose screen activities carefully.
  5. Think carefully about where screens are located and try to minimize their prominence. (pp. 17-18)

Excerpted from the excellent guide Facing the Screen Dilemma: Young Children, Technology and Early Education.  Published by the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, Alliance for Childhood, & Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children’s Entertainment (2012).

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Parent Resources

Help is at hand for parents who want to sift through the confusing advertising claims to find quality, educational media and best practice recommendations.  Lend a helping hand and share these resources with your inquiring parents!

Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood (CCFC) – “CCFC’s mission is to support parents’ efforts to raise healthy families by limiting commercial access to children and ending the exploitive practice of child-targeted marketing. In working for the rights of children to grow up—and the freedom of parents to raise them—without being undermined by corporate interests, CCFC promotes a more democratic and sustainable world.”

Children’s Technology Review – “CTR is part of a longitudinal survey started in 1983 by Warren Buckleitner to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of this emerging form of media on children.  It consists of three parts: a monthly 20 page PDF that summarizes the news and key products, a weekly email edition with three noteworthy apps, and a searchable review database.”

Common Sense Media – “Common Sense Media is dedicated to improving the lives of kids and families by providing the trustworthy information, education, and independent voice they need to thrive in a world of media and technology.” –  A webmaster best pick!

Cool Mom Tech – “the intersection of tech and style, of parenting, practicality and fabulosity, brought to you by Kristen Chase and Liz Gumbinner… It’s grown to become the go-to source for millions of parents who want common-sense info about tech delivered with a smile.”

Mrs. Judd’s Games – “is a Chicago-based collaboration between venture-backed KBooM! Games & Apps and Frances Judd, an early childhood educator... Mrs. Judd is now helping to reshape early childhood learning opportunities and entrepreneurial app design by: building fun and interactive mobile games and apps for children and their families, recommending helpful apps for family life and classrooms, and creating customized apps for schools, businesses, organizations and entrepreneurs that are helpful to a range of purposes.”

PBS Kids – “PBS KIDS is committed to making a positive impact on the lives of children through curriculum-based entertainment. With a 360-degree approach towards learning and reaching children, PBS KIDS leverages the full spectrum of media and technology to build knowledge, critical thinking, imagination and curiosity. By involving parents, teachers, caregivers and communities as learning partners, PBS KIDS helps to empower children for success in school and in life.”

TRUCE Bookmark

TRUCE Bookmark

Media Experts – Organizations that Advocate, Research, & Educate!

The following listing outlines various agencies, groups, and organizations that all play a role in promoting research, best practices, and advocacy for the appropriate use of media with young children.

Alliance for Childhood – “The Alliance for Childhood promotes policies and practices that support children’s healthy development, love of learning, and joy in living. Our public education campaigns bring to light both the promise and the vulnerability of childhood. We act for the sake of the children themselves and for a more just, democratic, and ecologically responsible future.”

Aspen Institute – “The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, DC. Its mission is to foster leadership based on enduring values and to provide a nonpartisan venue for dealing with critical issues. The Institute has campuses in Aspen, Colorado, and on the Wye River on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. It also maintains offices in New York City and has an international network of partners.”

Center for Media Literacy – “The Center for Media Literacy (CML) is an educational organization that provides leadership, public education, professional development and educational resources nationally and internationally. Dedicated to promoting and supporting media literacy education as a framework for accessing, analyzing, evaluating, creating and participating with media content, CML works to help citizens, especially the young, develop critical thinking and media production skills needed to live fully in the 21st century media culture.”

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University – “Drawing on the full breadth of intellectual resources available across Harvard University’s graduate schools and affiliated hospitals, the Center generates, translates, and applies knowledge in the service of improving life outcomes for children in the United States and throughout the world.”

Children Now – “Children Now’s mission is to find common ground among influential opinion leaders, interest groups and policymakers, who together can develop and drive socially innovative, “win-win” approaches to helping all children achieve their full potential.”  Focuses on issues that impact children, such as Media’s Impact on Children.

Edutopia: What Works in Education – “The George Lucas Educational Foundation (GLEF) is dedicated to improving the K-12 learning process by documenting, disseminating, and advocating innovative, replicable, and evidence-based strategies that prepare students to thrive in their future education, careers, and adult lives.”

Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media – “Communication - Collaboration - Creative Change: Staying true to the vision of Fred Rogers, and emulating the guiding principles of his life’s work, the mission of the Fred Rogers Center is to advance the fields of early learning and children’s media by acting as a catalyst for communication, collaboration, and creative change.”

Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop – “The mission of the Cooney Center is to advance children’s learning through digital media. The Joan Ganz Cooney Center is an independent research and innovation lab that focuses on the challenges of educating children in a rapidly changing media landscape. We conduct original research on emerging education technologies and collaborate with educators and media producers to put this research into action.”

National Association for Media Literacy Education  – “The National Association for Media Literacy Education (formerly Alliance for a Media Literate America) is a national membership organization dedicated to advancing the field of media literacy education in the United States.”

Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's Entertainment (TRUCE) – “TRUCE is an organization of educators who work to counteract the harmful impact of media and marketing on children.”

Early Learning Transition Model ~ Generously funded by the Heising-Simons Foundation 2012-2013

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NAEYC Best Practices: Media Use in the Early Ed. Classroom

 

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the nation’s leading professional organization for early care and education developmentally appropriate practice.  They, too, weigh in on how best to integrate media into the classroom.  They recently teamed up with the Fred Rogers Center to produce the 2013 Position Statement Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. 2012.  The statement is chock-full of applicable research references, guiding principles and more!  Here is a little taste…

 

 

NAEYC and the Fred Rogers Center offer six recommendations for early education educators:

 

 

1. Select, use, integrate, and evaluate technology and interactive media tools in intentional and develop- mentally appropriate ways, giving careful attention to the appropriateness and the quality of the content, the child’s experience, and the opportunities for co-engagement.

 

 

2. Provide a balance of activities in programs for young children, recognizing that technology and interactive media can be valuable tools when used intentionally with children to extend and support active, hands-on, creative, and authentic engagement with those around them and with their world.

 

 

3. Prohibit the passive use of television, videos, DVDs, and other non-interactive technologies and media in early childhood programs for children younger than 2, and discourage passive and non-interactive uses with children ages 2 through 5.

 

 

4. Limit any use of technology and interactive media in programs for children younger than 2 to those that appropriately support responsive interactions between caregivers and children and that strengthen adult-child relationships.

 

 

5. Carefully consider the screen time recommendations from public health organizations for children from birth through age 5 when determining appropriate limits on technology and media use in early child- hood settings. Screen time estimates should include time spent in front of a screen at the early childhood program and, with input from parents and families, at home and elsewhere.

 

 

6.  Provide leadership in ensuring equitable access to technology and interactive media experiences for the children in their care and for parents and families.

 

 

NAEYC Position Statements

Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. 2009

 

Media Violence in Children’s Lives. 1994

 

Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. 2012

 

Babies and Media

Apps for Babies?

Babies and media - what to do???

 

 The HuffPost Live did a recent video interview session to explore the concept of babies and 'educational' apps.  Click here to check it out!

 Zero to Three is a leading national organization celebrating the very early years.  Here is a podcast which considers infants and media use by Dr. Ellen Wartella.

 Also visit the For Our Babies  website to learn more about infant development and best practices.

 

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Foundations that Care about Media Use

Kaiser Family Foundation “Kaiser is a non-profit, private operating foundation focusing on the major health care issues facing the U.S., as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.  Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own research, journalism and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with other non-profit research organizations or major media companies.”  Funds national studies such as the 2010 Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year Olds

Knight Foundation – “Knight Foundation supports transformational ideas that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, engage communities and foster the arts. We believe that democracy thrives when people and communities are informed and engaged.”  They fund projects in a variety of areas, including “tech for engagement”.

MacArthur Foundation – “The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation supports creative people and effective institutions committed to building a more just, verdant, and peaceful world. In addition to selecting the MacArthur Fellows, the Foundation works to defend human rights, advance global conservation and security, make cities better places, and understand how technology is affecting children and society.”

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American Academy of Pediatrics Recommendations: Do No Harm

Doctor Knows Best!

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises pediatricians to recommend the following to parents:

  • Limit the amount of total entertainment screen time to less than 1 to 2 hours per day.
  • Discourage screen media exposure for children younger than 2 years of age.
  • Keep the TV set and Internet- connected electronic devices out of the child’s bedroom.
  • Monitor what media their children are using and accessing, including any Web sites they are visiting and social media sites they may be using.
  • Co-view TV, movies, and videos with children and teenagers, and use this as a way of discussing important family values.
  • Model active parenting by establishing a family home use plan for all media. As part of the plan, enforce a mealtime and bedtime “curfew” for media devices, including cell phones. Establish reasonable but firm rules about cell phones, texting, Internet, and social media use.

Cited from the AAP Policy Statement Children, Adolescents, and the Media. 2013

 

And here are the common sense recommendations for parents with children under two years of age.  Read up and share with your families!

  • The AAP discourages media use by children younger than 2 years.
  • The AAP realizes that media exposure is a reality for many families in today’s society.  If parents choose to engage their young children with electronic media, they should have concrete strategies to manage it.  Ideally, parents should review the content of what their child is watching and watch the program with their child.
  • Parents are discouraged from placing a television set in their child’s bedroom.
  • Parents need to realize that their own media use can have a negative effect on their children. Television that is intended for adults and is on with a young child in the room is distracting for both the parent and the child.
  • Unstructured playtime is more valuable for the developing brain than any electronic media exposure. If a parent is not able to actively play with a child, that child should have solo playtime with an adult nearby. Even for infants as young as 4 months of age, solo play allows a child to think creatively, problem-solve, and accomplish tasks with minimal parent interaction. The parent can also learn something in the process of giving the child an opportunity to entertain himself or herself while remaining nearby.

From the AAP Policy Statement: Media Use by Children Younger than 2 Years. 2011.  

 

Here are other AAP policy statements to check out!

Children, Adolescents, and the Media. 2013

Media Education. 2010

Media Use by Children Younger than 2 Years. 2011

Media Violence. 2009